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Essay.Main Points of Napoleon‘s Biography

Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.

         Napoleon Bonaparte was born the second of eight children, in Casa Buonaparte in the town of Ajaccio, Corsica . In January 1779, Napoleon was enrolled at a religious school in Autun to learn French, and in May he was admitted to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château. On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784 Napoleon started to train to become an artillery officer and graduated a year later as a second lieutenant in the artillery. At 16, Napoleon Bonaparte joined the French army. 

         In 1792, Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to rank of captain. In 1793, Napoleon Bonaparte led the forces in Toulon. Later Napoleon was promoted to rank of brigadier general. Bonaparte was made commander of the French army in Italy. He defeated four Austrian generals in succession. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte put down a revolt in Paris. Napoleon became known as Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, with complete political and military power.

         In 1803, war broke out between France and England. Russia, Austria and Sweden allied with Britain. Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia. He planned to invade England, but England's navy defeated Napoleons fleet.

         Having concluded treaties that left Europe at peace Bonaparte began working on France, reforming the economy, legal system (the famous and enduring Code Napoleon), church, military, education and government. He studied and commented on minute details, often while travelling with the army, and the reforms continued for most of his rule.

         Napoleon ended his marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais in 1809, then remarried in 1810 to Hapsburg Archduchess Marie Louise.

         In 1812 Napoleon went to war with Russia, assembling a force of over 400,000 soldiers, accompanied by the same number of followers and support. Such an army was almost impossible to feed or adequately control and the Russians repeatedly retreated, destroying the local resources and separating Bonaparte from his supplies. The Emperor was thrilled, eventually reaching Moscow on September 8th after the Battle of Borodino, a brutal conflict where over 80,000 soldiers died. However, the Russians refused to surrender, instead burning Moscow and forcing Napoleon into a long retreat back to friendly territory.

         After this war, throughout 1813 and into 1814 the pressure grew on Napoleon - he denied his Emperor of France status and was exiled to the Island of Elba. He tried to return in 1815 but he lost very important Waterloo battle, which was one of the biggest battles in the world's history, whereupon British forces forced him into further exile.

Категория: English essays and articles | Добавил: Редактор (21.08.2013)
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